In vitro fertilization (IVF)

In vitro fertilization (IVF) Procedure & Risks

In Vitro Fertilization is a part of the man assisted fertilization procedure that allows unable couples to have a child.  

 In this procedure, the eggs are extracted from the female and the sperm from the male. Then, these are combined in the labs and fertilized. Once fertilized, the embryo is implanted back into the female so that pregnancy can happen. 

Why would you need to IVF?

You will need In Vitro Fertilization in the following cases:

  • if you are suffering from ovulation disorders which makes the ovulation either irregular or absent. 

  • If your fallopian tubes are either damaged or blocked.

  • If your ovaries have suffered from failure before you get to 40.

  • If you suffer from endometriosis

  • If you suffer from benign uterine fibroids.

  • If you have gone through tubal sterilization before.

  • If the sperm concentration of your partner is below average

  • If you or your partner has a genetic disorder. 

  • If you want to preserve your fertility before you are going to through cancer treatment. 

How to prepare for this procedure?

In preparation of this procedure, the following tests will take place:

  • Ovarian reserve testing in order to check for the quantity and the quality of your eggs.

  • The analysis of the semen in order to check for the quality and quantity analysis of the semen.

  • Screening for infectious diseases for both partners.

  • A mock embryo transfer in order to see if the womb is even capable of holding the embryo. 

  • Cavity examines of the uterine cavity in order to see all the intricacies of the uterus beforehand. 

What is the procedure of In Vitro Fertilization?

The entire process of In vitro fertilization involves the following 4 steps and these are:

1. Induction of ovulation: In order to induce ovulation, the following medications will be given to you

  • You will be provided with medication to stimulate your ovaries.

  • You will also be provided with medications to mature the oocyte.

  • You will be provided medications in order to prevent premature ovulation.

  • In order to prepare your womb, you will be given medications for premature ovulation.

2. Egg retrieval: the process of egg retrieval is as follows:

  • You will be sedated first

  • Ultrasound is going to be used in order to guide the hollowed needle towards your follicles.

  • Once the needle reaches the follicles, the eggs are removed.

  • There are going to be side effects like cramps, or fullness, you will be given medications to deal with them as well.

3. Sperm retrieval:

  • There are two methods to get the sperm from the partner.

  • One is through testicular aspiration.

  • And another is through masturbation.

  • Through both the processes, the sperm is going to be collected inside a jar.

4. Fertilization:

  • Once both the egg and the sperm are retrieved, it will go through fertilization inside a lab.

  • This is done using either insemination or sperm injection.

5. Embryo transfer: 

  • You will be sedated first

  • A catheter will be inserted through your vagina, your cervix and towards your uterus.

  • The syringe is then used to place the embryo into the uterus.

What are the risks associated with this procedure?

  • There is a chance that there will be multiple births because many embryos are inserted in order to improve the chances of pregnancy.

  • There is a slight risk of premature birth.

  • The medications used for ovulation can actually overstimulate the ovaries.

  • There can be issues with the egg retrieval procedure.

  • Ovarian cancer is also one of the risks.

  • It can be emotionally and financially draining.


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Dr. Madhu Goel

Senior Gynecologist and a Senior Consultant

Dr. Madhu Goel is a well renowned senior gynaecologist and a senior consultant at Fortis La femme, New Delhi. She runs a private consultation in Goel’s surgery and Gynea centre and prior to being associated with Fortis; she was a consultant a Rockland Hospital.